IDO enzyme and IL-10 to TNF-α ratios as immune response silicone granuloma: Predictors factors


  • Ago Harlim Christian University of Indonesia
  • Heri Wibowo
  • Siti Aisah


Background Silicones are still being commonly used in medicine, whether in filling materials or their mixture. Some may penetrate human body tissue through injections or application with advanced medical technology, particularly transdermal administration. The study was aimed to determine predictor factors to assess the immune response to silicone filler injection.   Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate immune response based on blood in patients with granuloma following silicone injection compared to normal patients; The materials included blood cultures with RPMI media, which were categorized into three groups, i.e. RPMI alone, with PHA and with 3% silicone groups. Evaluation on immune response was performed by analyzing IDO enzyme using ELISA and detecting TNF-a, IFN-g, IL-10 cytokines using the Luminex technology. The study was conducted at Eijkman Foundation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Indonesia, between 2012 and 2015.   Results Patients with granuloma had higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines in their blood, and the ratios of TNF-a/IL-10 and TNF-a/IDO in blood were significantly different between patients with granuloma and standard control.   Conclusion IL-10 and IDO enzyme play critical roles in immune tolerance caused by silicone injection and can be utilized as predictors to assess immune response induced by silicone injection.  

Author Biography

Ago Harlim, Christian University of Indonesia

Departement of Dermato and Venereology Christian University of Indonesia




How to Cite

Harlim A, Heri Wibowo, Siti Aisah. IDO enzyme and IL-10 to TNF-α ratios as immune response silicone granuloma: Predictors factors. J Pak Assoc Dermatol [Internet]. 2022Jun.1 [cited 2024Jun.17];32(2):255-63. Available from:



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